1, Qi (Remarkable) which means Qin (light) Song (free, not held) Cui(clear) Hua(smooth). Qin indicates that the wood is light. Song indicates that the sound is not held. Cui indicates that the sound is clear and venerable, because of the old tong wood. Hua indicates that the sound is sweet and mellow, because of the wood was grown near water.
一曰奇 輕鬆脆滑是也 輕謂材輕 鬆謂聲透 脆謂聲之清老 老桐木也 滑謂聲之澤潤 近水材也
2, Gu (Ancient) which means simple, pure yet contains the rhymes of bell and chime.
3, Tou (Penetrated) which means an old qin where the adhesives and lacquer are dried and the sound quality is clear bright and not held.
三曰透 年雖久遠 膠漆不敗 清亮而不咽塞
4, Jin (Quiet) which means that there is no buzzing sound to influence the proper sound quality of the Qin
5, Run (Moist) which means that the sound quality comes out not dry and the rhythm stays longer.
五曰潤 謂發聲不燥 韻長不絕
6, Yuan (Whole) which means that the sound and rhythm stay as a whole without breaking up
7, Qin (Clear) which means that the sound of the qin comes out clearly as the sound of a big bronze Duo bell in wind.
8, Yun (Even) which means that all the sound qualities, open string, press down string and harmonics from each of the seven strings has to be regular, steady and smooth.
9, Fang (Fragrant) which means a good qin the more its been played the better the sound quality, like a pleasant fragrance which stays long and doesn't lose it's flavor.
九曰芳 謂愈彈愈發 久無乏聲
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